2. Self caused or self created
3. Created or brought into being by something else that began to exist
4. Created or brought into being by a non-created or un-caused entity
2. The absurdity of an infinite history of past events
3. Astrophysical evidence
 David Hilbert. On the Infinite, in Philosophy of Mathematics, ed. with an Intro. by P. Benacerraf and H. Putnam. Prentice-Hall. 1964, page151.
 Aristotle, Physics 207b8 (available online here http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/physics.html)
 P. C. W. Davies, “Spacetime Singularities in Cosmology,” in The Study of Time III, ed. J. T. Fraser (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1978), pages 78–79.
 John Gribbin, In the Beginning: The Birth of the Living Universe (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1993), page 19.
 Alex Vilenkin, Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other Universe. Hill and Wang. 2006, page 176.
 Paul Davies, “The Birth of the Cosmos,” in God, Cosmos, Nature and Creativity, ed. Jill Gready (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1995), pages. 8-9.
 P. J. Zwart, About Time (Amsterdam and Oxford: North Holland Publishing Co., 1976), pages 117-19
 John Polkinghorne and Nicholas Beale. Questions of Truth. 2009, page 41
 Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow. The Grand Design. 2011, page 180.
 http://www.jaafaridris.com/English/Books/physicists.htm accessed 1 October 2011, 10:32AM.
 See D. Bohm and B. J. Hiley. The Undivided Universe. Routledge, 1993.
 John Polkinghorne. Science and Religion in Quest of Truth. SPCK. 2011, page 39