Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Laa ilaaha il-lAllaah, Allaahu Akbar Allaahu Akbar, Wa Lil-laahil-hamd

(Allaah is the Greatest, Allaah is the Greatest, Allaah is the Greatest,there is no god but Allaah; Allaah is the Greatest and to Allaah be all praise)

The Covenant (The Constitution) of Madina

In mentioning the constitution that Prophet Muhammad assigned with the Jews in the article;Jews Led Arabs to embrace Islam! (story of the killed village); I saw that it shall be mentioned here as a whole, to read it carefully and know its conditions..


The apostle wrote a document concerning the emigrants and the helpers in which he 
made a friendly agreement with the Jews and established them in their religion and their 
property, and stated the reciprocal obligations,
as follows:  In the name of Allah the 
Compassionate, the Merciful.  This is a document from Muhammad the prophet 
[governing the relations] between the believers and Muslims of Quraysh and Yathrib, and 
those who followed them and joined them and laboured with them.  They are one 
community (umma) to the exclusion of all men.  The Quraysh emigrants according to 
their present custom shall pay the bloodwit within their number and shall redeem their 
prisoners with the kindness and justice common among believers. 
     The B. 'Auf according to their present custom shall pay the bloodwit they paid in 
heathenism; every section shall redeem its prisoners with the kindness and justice 
common among believers.  The B. Sa'ida, the B. 'l-Harith, and the B. Jusham, and the B. 
al-Najjar likewise.  (These all belong to al-Khazraj.) 
     The B. 'Amr b. 'Auf, the al-Nabit and the'Aus likewise.  (These all belong to alAus.) 

     Believers shall not leave anyone destitute among them by not paying his redemption 
money or bloodwit in kindness.
     A believer shall not take as an ally the freedman of another Muslim against him.  The 
God-fearing believers shall be against the rebellious or him who seeks to spread injustice, 
or sin or enmity, or corruption between believers; the hand of every man shall be against 
him even if he be a son of one of them.  A believer shall not slay a believer for the sake 
of an unbeliever, nor shall he aid an unbeliever against a believer.  God's protection is 
one, the least of them may give protection to a stranger on their behalf.  Believers are 
friends one to the other to the exclusion of outsiders.  To the Jew who follows us belong 
help and equality.  He shall not be wronged nor shall his enemies be aided.  The peace of 
the believers is indivisible.  No separate peace shall be made when believers are fighting 
in the way of God.  Conditions must be fair and equitable to all.  In every foray a rider 
must take another behind him.  The believers must avenge the blood of one another shed 
in the way of God.  The God- fearing believers enjoy the best and most upright guidance.  
No polytheist (Presumably the heathen Arabs of Medina are referred to.)  shall take the 
property or person of Quraysh under his protection nor shall he intervene against a 
believer.  Whosoever is convicted of killing a believer without good reason shall be 
subject to retaliation unless the next of kin is satisfied (with blood-money), and the 
believers shall be against him as one man, and they are bound to take action against him. 
     It shall not be lawful to a believer who holds by what is in this document and believes 
in Allah and the last day to help an evil-doer (Muhdith.  Commentators do not explain 
this word and it is somewhat obscure.  Possibly it means 'adulterer' here, though a wider 
meaning suits the context better.) or to shelter him.  The curse of Allah and 
His anger on the day of resurrection will be upon him if he does, and neither repentance 
nor ransom (Originally the phrase referred to the bloodwit.  Sarf meant 
compensation and 'adl the slaying of a man in revenge.  Finally it came to mean anything 
excessive, so that here it would be sufficient to say 'no excuse would be received from 
him'.) will be received from him. Whenever you differ about a matter it must be referred 
to Allah and to Muhammad. 

     The Jews shall contribute to the cost of war so long as they are fighting alongside the 
believers.  The Jews of the B. 'Auf are one community with the believers (the Jews have 
their religion and the Muslims have theirs), their freedmen and their persons except those 
who behave unjustly and sinfully, for they hurt but themselves and their families.  The 
same applies to the Jews of the B. al-Najjar, B. al-Harith, B. Sa'ida, B. Jusham, B. al-Aus, 
B. Tha'laba, and the Jafna, a clan of the Tha'laba and the B. al-Shutayba.  Loyalty is a 
protection against treachery.  

 The freedmen of Tha'laba are as themselves.  The close friends of the Jews are as themselves.  None of them shall go out to war save with the permission of Muhammad, but he shall not be prevented from taking revenge for a wound.  He who slays a man without warning slays himself and his household, unless it be one who has wronged him, for Allah will accept that.  The Jews must bear their expenses and the Muslims their expenses.  Each must help the other against anyone who attacks the people of this document.  They must seek mutual advice and consultation, and loyalty is a protection against treachery.  A man is not liable for his ally's misdeeds.  The wronged must be helped.  The Jews must pay with the believers so long as war lasts.  

Yathrib (Madina) shall be a sanctuary for the people of this document.  A stranger under protection shall be as his host doing no harm and committing no crime.  A woman shall only be given protection with the consent of her family. 

If any dispute or controversy likely to cause trouble should arise it must be referred to Allah and to Muhammad the apostle of God.  Allah accepts what is nearest to piety and goodness in this document. 

 Quraysh (were enemies to Muslims at that time)and their helpers shall not be given 
protection.  The contracting parties are bound to help one another against any attack on 
Yathrib.  If they are called to make peace and maintain it they must do so; and if they 
make a similar demand on the Muslims it must be carried out except in the case of a holy 
war.  Every one shall have his portion from the side to which he belongs;  the Jews of al-Alus, their freedmen and themselves have the same standing with the people of this document in pure loyalty from the people of this document. 

     Loyalty is a protection against treachery:  He who acquires aught acquires it for 
himself.  Allah approves of this document.  This deed will not protect the unjust and the sinner.  The man who goes forth to fight and the man who stays at home in the city (Or 'in Medina'.  Whether Medina is meant or not the passage stands self-condemned as a later interpolation because the town is consistently called Yathrib.) is safe unless he has been unjust and sinned.  Allah is the protector of the good and God-fearing man and Muhammad is the apostle of God. 

Source, Biography of Prophet Muhammad, Sirat Ibn Hisham, p:203-205

It is now clear that any covenant people agree on, it's conditions become a viable law, obtaining its strength from the acceptance of all the parties who assigned it.
So any party that breaks these conditions, shall be considered a betrayer. 

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